Enviromental Technologies Group


Western United States


Soil and Groundwater Remediation
Equiva Services, LLC

Fairbanks, Alaska

ETG personnel directed a hydrogeologic investigation and the remediation of petroleum-contaminated soil and groundwater at a former service station in Fairbanks, Alaska.  The release had impacted the drinking water wells for a system supplying over 15,000 people.  Though the existing drinking water treatment system had treated previous and current dissolved petroleum concentrations, concerns remained that higher concentrations were possible in the future.

The project included: evaluation of the site’s hydrogeology; installation of monitoring wells; preparation of a stream flow analysis to determine transport time; design and installation of an emergency secondary water treatment system for the drinking water treatment system; and design, build, and installation of an air sparging/soil vapor extraction system to operate year-round, 24 hours per day. In the design and installation of the system, ETG personnel had to address extreme temperatures, sometimes as low as -70°F and a 90-day window to complete the design and installation of the remediation system.  The system initially included a 500 cubic foot per minute catalytic oxidation (Cat-Ox) unit for hydrocarbon abatement.  The Cat Ox system was later removed during redevelopment of the site.  Approximately 120,000 pounds of petroleum hydrocarbons were removed by the SVE system.


Soil and Groundwater Remediation
Estes Express dba G.I. Trucking Company
La Mirada, California

In 2006, ETG personnel were contracted by Estes Express dba G.I. Trucking Company to provide environmental services for their La Mirada, California shipping terminal.  The site had recently been purchased by Estes Express. Free-phase petroleum hydrocarbons (FPH) were present in several monitoring wells at the facility.  As an initial task, ETG implemented a quarterly groundwater monitoring and reporting program. Additional contracted services included the following: preparation and submittal of an in-situ SVE feasibility study work plan, implementation of an interim FPH recovery program, and design of a site remedial system.  Following completion of the SVE testing, the preliminary design for the SVE system was completed.  An interim FPH recovery program using SVE was also completed for 90 days, resulting in the removal of 7,200 gallons of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons.  In April 2008, a soil gas survey was completed to assist in delineating the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons south and west of the site.  ETG is currently providing quarterly groundwater monitoring and reporting, completing site assessment, and completing remedial design.

Soil and Groundwater Investigation and Remediation
Hostess Brands
Glendale, California

In 2002 Hostess Brands requested ETG personnel evaluate the on-going investigation and cleanup of diesel releases at a large bakery facility in Glendale, California.  Previous actions by several environmental consultants had resulted in the installation of a free-phase petroleum and groundwater recovery system at the site boundaries and on an adjacent site.  Following a steady reduction in free-phase petroleum through the late 1990s, free-phase petroleum had suddenly increased to significant levels in 2000.

The initial actions were to evaluate the performance of the current treatment system, prepare geologic cross-sections to evaluate fate and transport of the releases, and review previous soil and groundwater assessment reports.  Based on the evaluation, several changes were proposed to the groundwater treatment system to improve operation reliability and performance.  Those actions included: addition of several new free-phase product recovery wells, replacement of the groundwater treatment system’s granular activated carbon vessels, installation of six additional pneumatic free-phase petroleum recovery pumps, addition of 23 passive free-phase petroleum recovery devices, and implementation of a systematic operation and maintenance program for the system.  ETG personnel also directed the installation of five borings and three monitoring wells to complete delineation of the dissolved contaminant plume north of the site.

The initial actions at the site resulted in a significant increase in free-phase petroleum recovery, a reduction in system down-time, a reduction in groundwater monitoring costs, and a dramatically improved relationship with the site regulatory agency.

Additional services at the site included implementation of an in-situ enhanced bioremediation pilot test to treat diesel contaminated soils, assistance in closure of a previously unidentified UST, and preparation of a Geographic Information System (GIS) map for subsurface geology to assist in investigation and remedial actions.

Fish Tissue and Aquatic Macro-invertebrate
Sampling Former Blue Ledge Mine
Joe Creek Watershed, California

ETG has been contracted by Engineering/Remediation Resources Group, Inc. (ERRG) to provide annual fish tissue and aquatic macro-invertebrate sampling for the former Blue Ledge Mine remediation project. The site is former mine that operated from approximately 1904 to 1930. The site that lies on steep hill slopes at the upper headwaters of the Joe Creek watershed, which feeds a tributary of the Applegate River. Sulfide-rich waste rock, which was discarded from the mine adits, lay on the hill slopes and drainages below the adits. As the waste rock eroded over time, the rock leached acidity and metals into Joe Creek and Elliot Creek. To address the problem, the United States Forest Service completed a remedial action from June 2010 through October 2011 to remove waste rock from the area and place the rock in a lined repository on site. The sampling is being completed to evaluate remedial action performance. The scope of work includes: procurement of an Scientific Collecting Permit from the California Department of Fish and Game, collection of aquatic macro-invertebrate kick samples by a fish biologist from five separate locations, collection of fish tissue samples from four separate location with an electrofisher, submittal of samples to the analytical laboratory, and documentation of sampling activities with field notes and photographs.


In-Situ Bioremediation of Soil and Groundwater
Shell Oil Company
Eugene, Oregon and Ferndale, Ellensberg, and Kent, Washington

ETG personnel were contracted by Shell Oil Company to implement in-situ bioremediation programs at three sites in Washington, and one site in Oregon.  The scope of work included evaluating previous soil and groundwater assessment data to identify sources of continued groundwater contamination, preparing bioremediation work plans, obtaining appropriate state agency approval, installing, as needed, application points and trenches, and completing the application programs.  The two and three month bioremediation programs include the injection of nutrients, dilute hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and indigenous bacteria.  The bioremediation program achieved a 75% reduction in petroleum hydrocarbons.

Chlorinated Solvent Soil and Groundwater Investigation and Remediation
engineering-environmental Management (e2M)
Milwaukie, Oregon

In January 2005, ETG personnel were contracted by e2M to provide environmental services for an active manufacturing facility located in Milwaukie, Oregon.  The client, Warn Industries, Inc. (Warn) had recently been purchased by Dover Resources and the new owner determined that a more aggressive approach to remediate on-site and off-site chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was warranted.  The initial task was the transfer of the site from a Consent Order to a Voluntary Cleanup Program (VCP).  ETG personnel provided technical support for Warn’s legal counsel during the process.  Additional contracted services included the following: preparation and submittal of a 9-month in-situ bioremediation feasibility study work plan that included bromide tracer evaluation, preparation and submittal of an in-situ SVE feasibility study work plan, and evaluation of the previous flow and transport model. Following transfer of the site to VCP, ETG personnel completed the following: implementation of both feasibility studies; slug testing on 25 site wells; a soil gas survey for SVE system design; designed, installed, and operated (for 6 months) a SVE system; performed annual groundwater monitoring and reporting; completed annual indoor sampling, and initiated negotiations with the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) for site-specific cleanup levels. ETG is currently providing annual groundwater monitoring and reporting, completing implementation of an expanded bioremediation program that has been successful in reducing source area contaminants by 90%, and is negotiating closure of the site with the DEQ.

In-Situ Bioremediation of Hydrocarbons
Interstate Brands Corporation
Albany, Oregon

ETG personnel were retained by IBC to complete closure of a former Continental Baking Company distribution facility in Albany, Oregon. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants (gasoline, diesel and oil range hydrocarbons) were detected in soil and groundwater during the decommissioning of a 5,000-gallon gasoline UST in 1992.  A previous consultant had completed site characterizations of soil and groundwater, but had failed to achieve any further progress toward closure. Characterization costs were approximately $225,000.  A third party who wished to obtain financing to complete remodeling of the building owned the site.  Difficulties were encountered in obtaining the financing due to the remaining hydrocarbon problem.

An in-situ bioremediation approach was proposed to solve the problem.  At the time, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) was unable to cost effectively ($20,000 fee) or in a timely manner (at least one year for permit, review and approval) permit the injection of nutrients and indigenous bacteria.  The DEQ suggested alternative remedial actions be pursued.  A SVE test was performed, and it was determined that SVE would not be effective for the silty-clay and sandy-silt soils at the site.  A three-month injection program using H2O2 to augment biodegradation was proposed and implemented. Results were inconclusive; some wells indicated a reduction in contaminants while others indicated an increase.  The DEQ was once again approached with a request to implement a bioremediation program that included the injection of nutrients, H2O2, and indigenous bacteria.  The DEQ project manager indicated that recent legislation now allowed this approach to be implemented under a general National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit.  A permit, the first of its kind in Oregon for this approach, was issued in March 1999 following some difficult negotiations with the DEQ’s water quality group.

Prior to implementing the bioremediation program, water quality data indicated that maximum benzene and naphthalene concentrations were 1,200 micrograms per liter (μg/L) and 410 μg/L, respectively.  Chemical data for soil indicated that the maximum concentrations of gasoline range hydrocarbons were 1,800 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and diesel was 1,300 mg/kg.  An in-situ bioremediation program was implemented over a six month period that resulted in a greater than 90 percent reduction of contaminants in soil and groundwater.  This level of reduction exceeded the required cleanup goals for the site.

A risk-based closure report was prepared for the site and submitted to the DEQ.  A NFA letter was issued by the DEQ following review of the report.

Soil and Groundwater Remediation
Merritt W. Truax
Canby, Oregon

ETG personnel were contracted by Merritt W. Truax to investigate and cleanup a 4,800 gallon gasoline release from an UST in Canby, Oregon.  Initial assessment conducted at the site included the installation of eight monitoring wells within the station property boundary.  Two of the monitoring wells (MW-1 and MW-4) were incorporated into an interim SVE system to remove separate phase gasoline identified on site groundwater and treat source area soils.

Initial operation of the SVE system included abatement of the discharge air with a thermal oxidation unit.  Following submittal of risk evaluation data and review by DEQ staff, the thermal oxidation unit was removed from the system and the SVE system began free discharge to the atmosphere.  A full-scale remediation system consisting of soil vapor extraction and air sparging later became operational. The prior risk evaluation was able to present risk evaluation data that resulted in abatement equipment not being required on the full-scale system.  This action resulted in a significant (>$100,000) cost savings for the client.

Soil and Groundwater Investigation and Remediation
Confidential Client
Klamath Falls, Oregon

ETG has been contracted by a former petroleum distributor in Klamath Falls, Oregon to characterize and remediate two separate surface releases of unleaded gasoline.  The scope of work includes recovery of free-phase gasoline, preparation of work plans for free-phase gasoline recovery and the installation of groundwater monitoring wells, installation of up to ten monitoring wells, quarterly groundwater monitoring and development of an in-situ bioremediation program following removal of free-phase gasoline.  ETG has implemented an initial product recovery program, installed a groundwater monitoring well network, and is performing a groundwater monitoring program. Additional services have included litigation support and completion of a preliminary risk assessment and remedial investigation report for the sites.


On-Site Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils
Interstate Brands Corporation
Seattle, Washington

ETG personnel successfully completed the remediation of petroleum contaminated soils at a former IBC bakery facility in Seattle, Washington.  The subject site consisted of a retail bakery thrift store, a former bakery, a refrigerated storage building, and vehicle maintenance shop.  Leaking underground storage tanks (LUSTs) located near the vehicle maintenance shop had resulted in the release of diesel and gasoline range petroleum hydrocarbons to site soils.  A hydraulic oil release was also identified beneath a former hydraulic hoist located in the vehicle maintenance shop. Previous site work had included the removal of six site USTs, the installation of soil borings, and the analysis of soil samples.  The scope of work for the project included the following:

  • Reviewed existing assessment data and identified data gaps
  • Installed soil borings and test pits to collect soil assessment
  • Excavated soils in excess of Model Toxic Control Act (MTCA) Method A
  • Treated excavated soils in an above ground bioremediation treatment cell
  • Replaced treated soils in the excavation
  • In-situ bioremediated hydraulic oil contaminated soils
  • Prepared a summary report for remedial actions

Following a review of existing assessment data, site locations were identified where soils failed to meet Washington Department of Ecology’s (Ecology) MTCA Method A cleanup goals.  To assess soils in those areas, twelve soil borings and eleven test pits were completed.  Test pit soils were field screened with a Dexsil PetroFLAGTM hydrocarbon detector to determine the need for additional test pit exploration.

Approximately 300 cubic yards of soil identified above MTCA Method A were removed from the area located adjacent to the vehicle maintenance shop and placed in a bioremediation treatment cell. The PetroFLAG™ hydrocarbon analyzer was used to direct the removal of contaminated soil.  During the next 90 days the soil was treated with petroleum degrading bacteria, nutrients, and a hydrogen peroxide solution, tilled on a weekly basis, and field screened with the PetroFLAG™ hydrocarbon analyzer after 30 and 60 days.  Final analytical results indicated a 90% reduction in diesel and oil range hydrocarbons allowing replacement of the soils in the excavation.

Initial soil sampling of the former hydraulic hoist excavation indicated oil and diesel range hydrocarbons that exceeded MTCA Method A.  Additional soil was removed, but analytical results for confirmation soil samples indicated diesel range hydrocarbons were at 3,990 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and oil range hydrocarbons were at 9,240 mg/kg.  Additional soil excavation was not feasible, so EMS performed an in-situ treatment of soils.  During the next 45 days the soil was treated with petroleum degrading bacteria, nutrients, and a hydrogen peroxide solution. Final analytical results indicated a 96% reduction in diesel and oil range hydrocarbons.

A site remediation summary was issued to Ecology six months after receiving authorization to proceed.  Ecology issued a “No Further Action” letter two months later.

Characterization and Remediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils in Dry Wells
Interstate Brands Corporation
Spokane, Washington

ETG personnel successfully completed the remediation of petroleum contaminated soils at a former IBC bakery facility in Spokane, Washington.  The site consisted of a retail bakery thrift store, a former bakery, and vehicle maintenance shop.  Storm drain drywells and a drywell for the vehicle maintenance shop floor drains had resulted in the release of diesel and oil range petroleum hydrocarbons to site soils.  Previous site work had included the removal of contaminated sludge from the floor drain drywell and removal of site USTs.  The scope of work for the project included the following:

  • Reviewed existing assessment data and identified data gaps
  • Constructed groundwater monitoring wells to assess groundwater quality
  • Excavated soils in excess of MTCA Method A
  • Prepared a summary report for remedial actions

Following a review of existing assessment data, four groundwater monitoring wells were completed at the site.  Four quarters of groundwater monitoring indicated groundwater was compliant with Ecology MTCA Method A cleanup goals.

To remediate soil located beneath the storm drain drywells and residual contaminates in the floor drain drywell.  ETG personnel directed the removal of approximately 150 cubic yards of petroleum contaminated soil.

ETG personnel were retained to complete a bioremediation program for an active service station in Mary’s Corner, Washington.  Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants (gasoline range hydrocarbons [TPH-g]) were detected in groundwater monitoring wells in March 1999.  Soil and groundwater investigations indicated the release was limited to the UST complex near the fuel dispenser islands.  Soils at the site consisted of silty-sands and silty-clays.

To prepare the site for the enhanced bioremediation program, an air sparging was operated in the UST complex for a period of six months.  TPH-g was reduced from 48,000 micrograms per liter (μg/L) to 12,000 μg/L and benzene was reduced from 1,160 μg/L to 170 μg/L.  In June 2002 , applications of indigenous bacteria, nutrients, and H2O2. Following nine weeks of monthly bacteria applications and bi-monthly H2O2 applications groundwater was compliant with Ecology MTCA Method A cleanup requirements.  TPH-g had been reduced by 98%, benzene by 97%, and total toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes by 99.6%.  Following four quarters of compliance monitoring a No Further Action (NFA) letter was issued for the release.

In Situ Bioremediation Services
TOC Holdings Co. Sites
SW Washington

Since 2006, ETG personnel have been providing in-situ bioremediation services for TOC sites in southwest Washington.  The scope of work has included: development of enhanced and augmented bioremediation program work plans for petroleum contamination, preparation of underground injection control (UIC) point permit applications, implementation of the bioremediation programs, and quarterly performance monitoring and reporting. To date, two of the three sites are compliant with Ecology MTCA Method A cleanup levels.  One of the two sites has been approved for closure by Ecology, the second site is in the third quarter of compliance monitoring, and the third site is expected to meet Ecology MTCA Method A cleanup levels in 2011.  To date the bioremediation programs have reduced contaminant levels by 85 to 100% at all the sites.

Soil and Groundwater Remediation
ATI Transportation, Inc.
Peshastin, Washington

ETG personnel were contracted ATI Transportation, Inc.’s insurance provider to direct the investigation and cleanup of a gasoline tanker spill in Peshastin, Washington.  An early morning accident involving a gasoline tanker resulted in the release of gasoline along a 600-foot section of Washington State Highway 97N.  Emergency response actions removed approximately 1,000 cubic yards of soil. ETG personnel directed soil removal actions, field screened soils, and collected samples for laboratory analyses.  At the northern end of the spill area, gasoline contaminants were discovered in contact with groundwater posing a potential risk to a domestic water supply well.  ETG personnel immediately implemented a program to provide drinking water to users of the domestic water well located 100 feet west of the groundwater contamination, and directed the installation of a carbon treatment system for the water well.

A remedial investigation was initiated and three groundwater monitoring wells were installed.  A remediation system consisting of soil vapor extraction and air sparging was designed, permitted and installed within 30-days of the release.  Groundwater monitoring results indicated the cleanup goals had been achieved within 90 days of remediation start-up.  Following four consecutive quarters of compliance monitoring a NFA letter was requested from the Ecology.  Nineteen months following the tanker spill a NFA letter was issued by Ecology.

Soil and Groundwater Assessment/Remediation
TOC Holdings Co.
Olympia, Washington

ETG provided soil and groundwater investigation and remediation services for a former service station.  Services included: SVE design testing; delineation of soil and groundwater contamination; indoor air quality sampling; groundwater monitoring; UST decommissioning oversight; design of a soil and groundwater remediation system; remedial system installation oversight; and remedial system operations and maintenance.  Services also included technical support for litigation related to third party impacts from the release, and preparation and implementation of a remedial action plan to treat soil beneath an adjacent property building.  The remedial action included: soil removal, installation of horizontal piping for active and passive SVE and in-situ bioremediation, and installation of a sub-slab vapor barrier in the adjacent building basement.  Project permitting required: completion of an air quality discharge permit for a catalytic/thermal oxidizer, building permits, sanitary sewer discharge permits, and completion of State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) permit.


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